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Welcome to the Genetics Education Resource Room! Here you will find animations, games, simulations, videos, problem sets, PPTs, and readings for your classroom, all organized by subject. To get started, click on a category in the side menu. Each sub-category will have a list of resources; to look for a specific type of resource, use the tabs at the top. Enjoy!

This list is by no means comprehensive—there are many resources out there! Please suggest your favorites and help us stock the Resource Room.
  • All
  • Animations & Simulations
  • Video
  • Problem Sets
  • Digital Presentations (PPT)
  • Readings

Nature of Genetic Material - DNA Structure

Animations & Simulations

The Structure of DNA This animation from PBS LearningMedia describes DNA structure and packaging; suitable for majors and non-majors. Keywords: DNA structure; histones; chromatin.

How DNA is Packaged (Advanced) This animation from the DNA Learning Center provides details about DNA structure and packaging; suitable for majors. Keywords: DNA structure; histones; packaging; nucleosome.

What is a Gene? This interactive animation from Learn.Genetics provides a very basic overview of a gene; suitable for non-majors. Keywords: the basics; gene; DNA structure

What is DNA? This interactive animation from Learn.Genetics provides a very basic overview of DNA structure; suitable for non-majors. Keywords: the basics; DNA structure; helix.

Video

DNA Structure and Replication This video from PBS LearningMedia "Crash Course" describes DNA structure and function; suitable for majors and non-majors. Keywords: DNA structure; histones; chromatin.

The Chemical Structure of DNA This video from HHMI Biointeractive combines informal lecture with digital media for a short description of DNA biochemistry and structure; suitable for majors. Keywords: DNA structure; biochemistry; right-handed helix.

Problem Sets

Putting the Pieces Together: The Discovery of DNA Structure and Replication This case study from the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science leads students through the basics of DNA structure, guides them to classic papers, and finally leads them through replication; suitable for majors. Keywords: DNA structure; replication; Watson and Crick; Franklin; case study.

Form and Function in DNA Through Strands of a String - "String Me Up" This hands-on activity lets students discover why super coiling is important for DNA structure; suitable for non-majors or introductory majors. Keywords: DNA structure; packaging; supercoil.

Digital Presentations (PPT)

Molecular Genetics Basics This Powerpoint from Science Prof Online provides a copyright-free walk through DNA structure and function; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: DNA Structure.

Readings

DNA is a Structure that Encodes Biological Information This concept article from Nature's Scitable details DNA's structure and function; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: DNA Structure.

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  • Problem Sets
  • Digital Presentations (PPT)
  • Readings

Nature of Genetic Material - RNA Structure

Animations & Simulations

RNA: The Versatile Molecule This interactive animation and accompanying image/description from Learn.Genetics demonstrates the key structural differences between DNA and RNA; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: RNA Structure; structure and function.

RNA SplicingThis animation from the DNA Learning Center shows how introns are removed during RNA spicing; suitable for non-majors. Keywords: mRNA; RNA structure; spliceosome; intron; exon; Central Dogma

RNA VirtuaLab This game from NOVA RNA Lab and PBS LearningMedia has several videos, interactive animations, and RNA folding puzzles, resulting in an interactive game that demonstrates RNA structure and function; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: RNA structure; function; RNA folding; molecular engineer.

Video

RNA Splicing This short video from the DNA Learning Center shows the splicing process removing introns from pre-mRNA; suitable for majors. Keywords: mRNA; RNA structure: spliceosome; intron; exon.

The RNA Enigma This video from NOVA Labs and PBS LearningMedia explores RNA's structure and function, and provides an overview of the RNA Lab; suitable for non-majors and introductory non-majors. Keywords: RNA structure; RNA folding; function.

RNA Folding This video from HHMI Biointeractive combines animation with lecture to explore the versitility of RNA folding patterns; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: RNA structure; RNA folding; function.

Problem Sets

RNA Biology and Biological Membranes Question 1 from this advanced problem set from a course at CalTech leads students through types of coding and non-coding RNA; suitable for majors. Keywords: ncRNA; RNA structure

Digital Presentations (PPT)

RNA: Bioalgorithms Slides 1-5 from this Powerpoint from Bioalgorithms describes the basics of RNA structure; the rest provide an advanced overview of folding pattern prediction. Suitable for majors. Keywords: RNA structure; folding pattern

RNA Diversity This set of slides from HHMI BioInteractive shows the variety of different types of RNA and describes their purpose and structure; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: RNA structure; RNA function; diversity; mRNA; ribosomal RNA.

Readings

Chemical Structure of RNA This article from Nature's Scitable describes the structure and function of RNA, including multiple types of RNA molecules; suitable for majors. Keywords: RNA folding; function; structure; tRNA; rRNA; mRNA; microRNA; siRNA; sRNA.

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  • Digital Presentations (PPT)
  • Readings

Nature of Genetic Material - Chromosome Structure

Animations & Simulations

Chromosome 11 Flyover This animation from the DNA Learning Center provides a fly-over of human Chromosome 11, demonstrating transposons, non-coding DNA, several coding regions, and more; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: chromosome structure; non-coding DNA; human genetics.

How DNA is Packaged (Advanced) This animation from the DNA Learning Center provides details about DNA structure and packaging; suitable for majors. Keywords: DNA structure; histones; packaging; nucleosome.

What is a chromosome? This animation from Learn.Genetics guides viewers through the basics of chromosomes; suitable for non-majors. Keywords: chromosome; DNA packaging; karyotype.

DNA is packaged in a chromosome. This animation from DNA from the Beginning explains how DNA is wound around histones, condensing into chromosomes; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: chromosome; histones; condensing.

Video

What are chromosomes? This video from Bozeman Science describes chromosomes and their place in the genome; suitable for non-majors. Keywords: chromosome; genome; sister chromatids

Problem Sets

DNA is packaged in a chromosome. This online problem set from DNA from the Beginning helps students understand just how efficiently DNA is packed into chromosomes; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: DNA packaging; histone; chromosome.

Digital Presentations (PPT)

Chromosomes: An Overview This slide set from the National Genetics and Genomics Education Centre in the UK provides an explanation of chromosome structure; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: chromosomes; karyotype; anomalies.

Readings

Human Genome's Spirals, Loops, and Globules Come into 4-D View This article from Scientific American describes recent advancements in our understanding of the structure and thus the function of DNA and chromosomes; suitable for majors. Keywords: human genome; chromatin; 4-D; packaging.

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  • Digital Presentations (PPT)
  • Readings

Nature of Genetic Material - Mitosis and Replication

Animations & Simulations

Mechanism of Replication (Basic) This 3-D animation from the DNA Learning Center shows DNA replication; suitable for non-majors. Keywords: helicase; DNA; replication.

Mechanism of Replication (Advanced) This 3-D animation from the DNA Learning Center provides a detailed description of DNA replication, including strand orientation; suitable for majors, and a good refresher for advanced students. Keywords: helicase; DNA; replication; 5’ and 3’ strands; Okazaki fragments.

Mitosis: The Movie This animation from the Molecular and Cellular Biology Learning Center takes the viewer through the steps of mitosis, also detailing the cell cycle; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: mitosis; cell cycle; cytokinesis; sister chromatids

Checkpoints and Cell Cycle Control This animation from Harvard MCB-HHMI Outreach shows what happens during various failures at mitotic and meiotic checkpoints, resulting in abnormal cell division; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: checkpoints; abnormal; nondisjunction; mitosis; meiosis; cell cycle; cancer.

Video

Cell Cycle and Mitosis This video from “The Penguin Prof” provides an approximately 15 minute overview of cell division, mitosis, chromosome structure, and more—all with a bit of humor; most suitable for non-majors. Keywords: cell cycle; mitosis; cytokinesis; checkpoints; phases.

DNA Replication This video from MIT OpenCourseWare shows Eric Lander interactively lecturing about replication; suitable for majors. Keywords: replication; example lecture; primer; 3’ and 5’ strands.

Problem Sets

Who Killed Yew? This case study from the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science leads students through a murder mystery in an exercise designed to teach and enhance their understanding of mitosis and the cell cycle; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: mitosis; cell cycle; cytoskeleton; mitotic inhibitor.

Putting the Pieces TogetherThis case study from the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science uses historic experiments to investigate DNA and replication; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: DNA structure: DNA replication.

Mitosis This critical thinking problem from GSA members Celeste Berg and Stan Fields is offered through GSA PREP A/V Room for majors and non-majors to use their knowledge of mitosis to answer practical questions. Keywords: mitosis; cell cycle; nondisjunction.

Digital Presentations (PPT)

Mitosis and Meiosis Slides 1-8 of this presentation from the National Genetics Education and Development Centre in the UK detail the phases of mitosis; suitable for majors and non-majors. Keywords: cell cycle; mitosis; cell division.

Cell Division Images A set of slides from Big Picture Education (Wellcome Trust) with imaging of different stages of mitosis; suitable for majors and non-majors; “you can take any of our files and remix them for your lessons.” Keywords: mitosis; imaging; HeLa; illustrations.

Readings

Mitosis This article from Nature's Scitable describes the phases of mitosis; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: mitosis; cell cycle; tubules; phases.

Replication and Distribution of DNA During Mitosis This article from Nature's Scitable describes mitosis as well as how the genetic information is preserved as the cells divide; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: mitosis; replication; sister chromatids; cell cycle; cell division.

Cells Can Replicate Their DNA Precisely This article from Nature's Scitable details the mechanisms of DNA replication, including DNA polymerase and primase; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: replication; DNA polymerase; primers; lagging strands; leading strands.

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Transmission/Patterns of Inheritance - Meiosis

Animations & Simulations

How Cells Divide: Mitosis vs. Meiosis This animation from NOVA and PBS LearningMedia explores mitosis and meiosis side by side; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: meiosis; gametes; haploid; reproduction.

Meiosis: The Movie This animation from the Molecular and Cellular Biology Learning Center takes the viewer through the steps of meiosis, also detailing crossing over, and the steps needed to separate homologous chromosomes and sister chromatids; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: meiosis; gametes; homologous chromosomes; sister chromatids; recombination.

Checkpoints and Cell Cycle Control This animation from Harvard MCB-HHMI Outreach shows what happens during various failures at mitotic and meiotic checkpoints, resulting in abnormal cell division; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: checkpoints; abnormal; nondisjunction; mitosis; meiosis; cell cycle; cancer.

Independent Assortment This animation from College of the Siskiyous explains independent assortment in meiosis, and how it leads to the random combination of alleles on non-homologous chromosomes in the resulting gametes; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: meiosis; independent assortment; gamete formation; unlinked alleles.

Video

Meiosis: Where the sex starts This video from PBS LearningMedia "Crash Course" describes meiosis, crossing over, and the importance of genetic variation; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: meiosis; reproduction; crossing-over; variation; gametes.

Phases of Meiosis This video from Bozeman Science describes the different phases of meiosis, highlighting opportunities for genetic variation; suitable for non-majors. Keywords: meiosis; homologous chromosomes; sister chromatids; variation; crossing over.

Problem Sets

Baby Doe vs. The Prenatal Clinic This case study from the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science leads students through a "court case" with a fertility clinic, asking them to apply what they know about cell division and meiosis to a genetic condition; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: meiosis; cell division; nondisjunction.

Digital Presentations (PPT)

Mitosis and Meiosis Slides 9 and beyond of this presentation from the National Genetics Education and Development Centre in the UK detail the phases of meiosis; suitable for majors and non-majors. Keywords: gametes; meiosis; sister chromatid; homologous chromosomes.

Cell Division and Meiosis This set of slides from Science Prof Online details the stages of meiosis; suitable for majors and non-majors. Keywords: meiosis; crossing over; gametes; sister chromatids; homologues.

Readings

Replication and Distribution of DNA During Meiosis This article from Nature's Scitable details the process of meiosis, resulting in a reduction in chromosome number in the gametes that are eventually produced; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: meiosis; gametes; sister chromatids; homologous chromosomes; crossing over.

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  • Digital Presentations (PPT)
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Transmission/Patterns of Inheritance - Modes of Inheritance

Animations & Simulations

Introduction to Molecular Genealogy This animation from Learn.Genetics provides a basic introduction to molecular geneology and family trees; suitable for non-majors. Keywords: pedigree; molecular geneology; chromosomal inheritance.

Autosomal DNA This animation from Learn.Genetics details the autosomal DNA mode of inheritance; suitable for non-majors. Keywords: autosomal inheritance; relatedness; recombination; molecular geneology.

X Chromosome DNA This animation from Learn.Genetics describes the X-chromosome and its mode of inheritance; suitable for non-majors. Keywords: X-chromosome inheritance; X-linkage; molecular geneology.

Y Chromosome DNA This animation from Learn.Genetics describes the Y-chromosome and its mode of inheritance; suitable for non-majors. Keywords: Y-chromosome inheritance; Y-linkage; molecular geneology.

Mitochondrial DNA This animation from Learn.Genetics details mitochondrial DNA and how it's inherited; suitable for non-majors. Keywords: mitochondrial DNA; maternal lineage; molecular geneology.

Video

Heredity This video from PBS LearningMedia "Crash Course" describes heredity, modes of inheritance, and multifactorial issues like the environment interacting with genetics; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: heredity; inheritance; dominance; recessive; mitochondrial; GxE.

Problem Sets

Make a karyotype This interactive karyotype from Learn.Genetics allows users to drag and drop chromosomes to their homologous partners, which are already assembled in a human karyotype; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: karyotype; homologous pairs; human genome.

Modes of Inheritance Question 2 from this problem set provides students with pedigrees and asks them to identify which mode of inheritance can be ruled out; suitable for majors. Keywords: pedigree; modes of inheritance; dominance; autosomal; x-linkage.

Digital Presentations (PPT)

The Patterns of Genetic Inheritance This set of slides from Joann Boughman, previous Executive Vice President for the American Society of Human Genetics, details various modes of inheritance as well as factors that contribute to resulting phenotypes and pedigrees; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: modes of inheritance; Mendelian; non-Mendelian; GxE; penetrance; multifactorial.

Understanding Patterns of Inheritance This set of slides from the National Genetics Education and Development Centre in the UK uses human disease to illustrate different modes of inheritance; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: modes of inheritance; autosomal; X-linked; human genetics; pedigree.

Readings

Multifactorial Inheritance and Genetic Disease This article from Nature's Scitable details the various factors contributing to complex traits, using disease as an example; suitable for majors. Keywords: modes of inheritance; multifactorial; complex traits.

Multifactorial Inheritance and Genetic Disease This article from Nature's Scitable details the various factors contributing to complex traits, using disease as an example; suitable for majors. Keywords: modes of inheritance; multifactorial; complex traits.

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Transmission/Patterns of Inheritance - Genetic Crosses

Animations & Simulations

Punnett Squares This animation from DNA from the Beginning features Reginald Punnett walking viewers through a monohybrid cross in a Punnett square; most suitable for non-majors. Keywords: genetic crosses; Mendelian inheritance; Punnett square; monohybrid.

Pedigree Investigator This interactive animation/game from Learn.Genetics asks users to develop a pedigree based on family history of nicotine addiction, while first describing pedigrees and their symbols; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: pedigree; genetic crosses; inheritance; human disease.

Animations & Simulations

Virtual Genetics Laboratory This software from UMass Boston lets users explore genetic crosses and linkage in various scenarios using a virtual environment; most suitable for majors. Keywords: linkage; gene mapping; genetic crosses.

Video

Solving Genetics Problems This video from “The Penguin Prof” provides an approximately 15 minute overview of basic genetics problems, including probability, Punnett squares, and modes of inheritance; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: Punnett square; genetic cross; probability; heterozygotes; homozygotes.

Mendelian Genetics This video from Bozeman Science discusses Mendelian Genetics, including some background about Mendel, and goes through several simple genetics crosses and some practice problems; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: Mendelian genetics; genetics crosses; Punnett squares; dominance; heterozygotes; homozygotes.

Problem Sets

Pedigree Investigator This interactive animation/game from Learn.Genetics asks users to develop a pedigree based on family history of nicotine addiction, while first describing pedigrees and their symbols; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: pedigree; genetic crosses; inheritance; human disease.

Perform a dihybrid cross This interactive problem set from DNA From the Beginning guides users through a dihybrid cross; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: genetic crosses; dihybrid; Mendelian inheritance; Punnett square.

Mendelian Genetics  This video from Bozeman Science contains some practice problems; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: Mendelian genetics; genetics crosses; Punnett squares; dominance; heterozygotes; homozygotes.

Mendelian Genetics, Probability, Pedigree, and Chi-Square Statistics  This exercise from HHMI Biointeractive begins with a short video about Sickle Cell Anemia and continues with a set of problems that leads users through subsequently more challenging materials; suitable for majors. Keywords: Punnett square; genetic crosses; probability; Chi-square.

It's All Greek to Me: Genetics Edition  This case study from the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science uses an example from a genetics counseling scenario to demonstrate the use of Punnett squares, probability, and pedigrees; suitable for majors, and for non-majors with some modifications. Keywords: pedigree; Punnett square; genetic diseases; dominance.

Virtual Genetics Laboratory This software from UMass Boston lets users explore genetic crosses and linkage in various scenarios using a virtual environment; most suitable for majors. Keywords: linkage; gene mapping; genetic crosses.

Digital Presentations (PPT)

The Patterns of Genetic Inheritance This set of slides from Joann Boughman, previous Executive Vice President for the American Society of Human Genetics, details various modes of inheritance as well as factors that contribute to resulting phenotypes and pedigrees; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: pedigree; genetic crosses; modes of inheritance; Mendelian; non-Mendelian; GxE; penetrance; multifactorial.

Readings

Inheritance of Traits by Offspring Follows Predictable Rules This concept description from Nature's Scitable describes alleles, pedigrees, Mendelian inheritance, homozygotes, heterozygotes, dominance, breeding experiments, and Punnett squares; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: genetic crosses; Mendelian inheritance; dominance.

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  • Digital Presentations (PPT)
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Transmission/Patterns of Inheritance - Quantitative Genetics

Animations & Simulations

Bugsville This application, designed by Jon Herron, allows the user to look at what happens when heritability is set at 0.9, 0.5, 0.1, and when heritability is unknown; it also includes a tutorial and a set of questions. Suitable for majors. Keywords: quantitative genetics; heritability; complex traits; simulation.

Video

Heredity This video from PBS LearningMedia "Crash Course" describes heredity, modes of inheritance, and multifactorial issues like the environment interacting with genetics; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: heredity; inheritance; dominance; recessive; mitochondrial; GxE.

How to estimate heritability This video from Useful Genetics describes how to estimate heritability; suitable for majors. Keywords: heritability; quantitative genetics; complex traits.

Heritability of Phenotypic Differences This video from Useful Genetics describes heritability, additive variance, and genetic vs. environmental influences on phenotype; suitable for majors. Keywords: quantitative genetics; complex traits; heritability.

Complex Patterns of Inheritance The end of this video from Kelly Williams provides a basic overview of complex traits--most do not follow Mendelian rules; most suitable for non-majors. Keywords: non-Mendelian inheritance; complex traits.

Quantitative Genetics An online lecture from the Conifer Translational Genomics Network describing quantitative genetics--on the longer side and requiring a cup of coffee; suitable for majors. Keywords: quantitative genetics; heritability; complex traits; plant genetics.

Problem Sets

Genetics Practice Problems This problem set from Biology Corner includes non-Mendelian genetics practice problems addressing codominance, epistasis, and polygenic traits; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: codominance; epistasis; complex traits.

Multiple Allele Traits in Chickens This practice set from Biology Corner uses chicken combs to question students about complex traits with multiple genes; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: multiple genes; complex traits; epistasis.

Digital Presentations (PPT)

Quantitative Genetics This set of slides from Dr. Gerald Wilkinson at the University of Maryland provides a comprehensive overview of quantitative genetics, additive variance, and complex traits; suitable for majors. Keywords: quantitative genetics; heritability; complex traits; GxE; multiple genes.

Readings

Estimating Heritability This eBook from Nature's Scitable features a chapter detailing quantitative genetics and heritability, including addressing misconceptions; suitable for majors. Keywords: heritability; genetic variance; quantitative genetics; broad-sense; narrow-sense.

Foot Feathering This reading from Learn.Genetics uses foot feathering in Pigeon genetics to explore a trait influenced by multiple genes and the environment; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: GxE; epistasis.

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Transmission/Patterns of Inheritance - Linkage and Recombination

Animations & Simulations

Genetic Recombination This animation from DNA From the Beginning (featuring Sturtevant!) describes recombination and why linked genes recombine less frequently. Keywords: genetic crosses; linkage; recombination.

Virtual Genetics LaboratoryThis software from UMass Boston lets users explore genetic crosses and linkage in various scenarios using a virtual environment; most suitable for majors. Keywords: linkage; gene mapping; genetic crosses.

Video

Genetic Recombination and Gene Mapping This video from Bozeman Science demonstrates how scientists use genetic crosses and recombination to create genetic maps and understand linkage; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: genetic crosses; linkage; recombination; genetic mapping.

Problem Sets

Determine Linkage Groups in Fruit Flies This problem set from DNA from the Beginning uses real linkage examples from fruit fly crosses to challenge students to think about how linkage affects independent assortment; suitable for majors. Keywords: genetic linkage; independent assortment; genetic crosses; recombination.

Mapping Genes to Traits in Dogs Using SNPs This exercise from HHMI Biointeractive lets students perform their own GWAS investigating traits in dogs; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: linkage; gene mapping; GWAS.

Linkage and Recombination, Genetic MapsThis problem set from MIT Open CourseWare asks a series of open-ended questions about genetic crosses and linkage; suitable for majors. Keywords: genetic crosses; linkage; recombination.

Virtual Genetics Laboratory This software from UMass Boston lets users explore genetic crosses and linkage in various scenarios using a virtual environment; most suitable for majors. Keywords: linkage; gene mapping; genetic crosses.

Digital Presentations (PPT)

Readings

Estimating Heritability This reading from DNA From the Beginning details what happens during recombination, and how linked genes are less likely to get recombined in the process; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: recombination; genetic linkage; independent assortment.

Genetic Linkage This reading from Learn.Genetics discusses genetic linkage in light of phenotypic traits seen in pigeons; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: genetic linkage; independent assortment; genetic crosses; recombination.

Some Genes Are Transmitted to Offspring in Groups via the Phenomenon of Gene Linkage This reading from Nature's Scitable describes the phenomenon of genetic linkage and describes how linked genes impact expected offspring phenotypes; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: genetic linkage; independent assortment; genetic crosses; recombination.

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Transmission/Patterns of Inheritance - Genotype x Environment

Animations & Simulations

Video

Heredity This video from PBS LearningMedia "Crash Course" describes heredity, modes of inheritance, and multifactorial issues like the environment interacting with genetics; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: heredity; inheritance; dominance; recessive; mitochondrial; GxE.

Genotype Expression This video from Bozeman Science highlights that genotypes make a specific phenotype...except when they don't; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: GxE; complex traits; epigenetics; genotype to phenotype; multifactorial.

The Epigenetics of Identical Twins This video from Learn.Genetics demonstrates how individuals with the same genotype can have different phenotypes thanks to the environment and epigenetics; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: GxE; epigenetics; twin studies.

Problem Sets

Genes, Environment, and Human Behavior This supplementary module from BSCS demonstrates that "nature vs. nurture" is not really the question; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: GxE; complex traits.

Digital Presentations (PPT)

Gene Interaction This set of Powerpoint slides from Santa Monica College details incomplete dominance, codominance, epistasis, sex-limited traits, and more; suitable for majors. Keywords: incomplete dominance; co-dominance; multiple alleles; multiple genes; epistatis; sex-limited; penetrance; expressivity; GxE; anticipation.

Readings

Foot Feathering This reading from Learn.Genetics uses foot feathering in Pigeon genetics to explore a trait influenced by multiple genes and the environment; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: GxE; epistasis.

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Molecular Biology of Gene Function - Transcription

Animations & Simulations

Transcription & Translation: The Central Dogma of Biology This animation from the DNA Learning Center provides a brief overview of the Central Dogma; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: Central Dogma; transcription; translation.

Transcription (Advanced) This animation from the DNA Learning Center provides a detailed description of transcription beginning after the transcription factors have bound to the DNA; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: transcription; RNA polymerase.

Transcribe and translate a gene This interactive animation from Learn.Genetics allows users to transcribe and translate a gene; most suitable for non-majors. Keywords: transcription; translation; interactive; base pairs; codons.

Anatomy of a Gene This diagram from Learn.Genetics allows users to explore the different facets of a gene, from promotor to exon; most suitable for non-majors. Keywords: promotor; enhancer; Central Dogma.

RNA Transcription, Translation This animation from DNA from the Beginning reveals the key experiments that helped bridge the gap in the Central Dogma, revealing mRNA and transcription; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: classic experiments; transcription; Central Dogma; mRNA.

Transcription and Translation This animation is a clip from the PBS film "DNA: The Secret of Life" showing transcription and translation; suitable for non-majors. Keywords: transcription; translation; Central Dogma.

Video

Transcription and Translation This video from Bozeman Science walks viewers through transcription and translation beginning with analogies; most suitable for non-majors. Keywords: transcription; translation; codons; central dogma.

Problem Sets

Molecular Genetics of Color Mutations in Rock Pocket Mice This exercise from HHMI Biointeractive guides students through an investigation of coat color in rock mice pocket mice, letting them transcribe and translate variants and correspond those with coat color phenotypes; suitable for majors and non-majors. Keywords: genotype to phenotype; transcription; translation; mutation.

Protein Synthesis This problem set from DNA from the Beginning starts off with transcription; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: transcription; translation.

Digital Presentations (PPT)

Transcription and Translation The Science Prof Online has Powerpoint and PDF versions of a slide set guiding students through key elements of transcription and translation; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: transcription; translation; Central Dogma.

Readings

The Information in DNA is Decoded by Transcription This article from Nature's Scitable details the process and purpose of transcription; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: transcription; mRNA.

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Molecular Biology of Gene Function - Translation

Animations & Simulations

Tour of the Basics: What is a protein? This animation from Learn.Genetics provides an introductory overview of protein structure and function, including protein synthesis; suitable for non-majors. Keywords: protein structure; protein function; protein synthesis; translation.

Transcribe and translate a gene This interactive animation from Learn.Genetics allows users to transcribe and translate a gene; most suitable for non-majors. Keywords: transcription; translation; interactive; base pairs; codons.

Transcription and Translation This animation is a clip from the PBS film "DNA: The Secret of Life" showing transcription and translation; suitable for non-majors. Keywords: transcription; translation; Central Dogma.

Translation (Advanced)This animation from the DNA Learning Center describes the process of translation; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: mRNA; tRNA; codon; amino acid; protein synthesis; ribosome.

Video

Transcription and Translation This video from Bozeman Science walks viewers through transcription and translation beginning with analogies; most suitable for non-majors. Keywords: transcription; translation; codons; central dogma.

Problem Sets

Molecular Genetics of Color Mutations in Rock Pocket Mice This exercise from HHMI Biointeractive guides students through an investigation of coat color in rock mice pocket mice, letting them transcribe and translate variants and correspond those with coat color phenotypes; suitable for majors and non-majors. Keywords: genotype to phenotype; transcription; translation; mutation.

Protein Synthesis This problem set from DNA from the Beginning starts off with transcription, then asks questions about translation and protein synthesis; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: transcription; translation.

Digital Presentations (PPT)

Transcription and Translation1 The Science Prof Online has Powerpoint and PDF versions of a slide set guiding students through key elements of transcription and translation; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: transcription; translation; Central Dogma.

Readings

Types of proteins This interactive image from Learn.Genetics provides a basic overview of the types of proteins produced after translation; most suitable for non-majors. Keywords: protein function; protein synthesis.

The Information in DNA Determines Cellular Function via Translation This article from Nature's Scitable details the process and purpose of translation; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: tRNA; codons; ribosome; translation; amino acids.

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  • Digital Presentations (PPT)
  • Readings

Molecular Biology of Gene Function - Genotype to Phenotype

Animations & Simulations

Penetrance This is a Foundation for Genomics and Population Health tutorial on penetrance vs. expressivity, includes a quiz and several other features; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: penetrance; expressivity; complex traits.

Modify Mendelian Ratios This interactive animation and reading from Cornell University's website on basic animal genetics explores incomplete dominance, multiple alleles, epistasis, and imprinting; suitable for majors. Keywords: incomplete dominance; co-dominance; multiple alleles; lethal alleles; epistatis; genomic imprinting; complex traits.

Video

Chromosomal Genetics This video from Bozeman Science describes aspects of genetics that are non-Mendelian, specifically incomplete dominance, codominance, epistasis, multiple genes, linked genes, and more; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: incomplete dominance; co-dominance; multiple alleles; multiple genes; epistatis; sex-limited; sex-linked; Morgan; Sturtevant.

Problem Sets

Sex-Limited Inheritance This exercise from MI Genetics Resource Center asks students to determine the pattern of inheritance in a pedigree demonstrating sex-limited phenotypes and describes common student difficulties with this task; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: sex-limited traits; pedigrees; inheritance patterns.

Digital Presentations (PPT)

Gene Interaction This set of Powerpoint slides from Santa Monica College details incomplete dominance, codominance, epistasis, sex-limited traits, and more; suitable for majors. Keywords: incomplete dominance; co-dominance; multiple alleles; multiple genes; epistatis; sex-limited; penetrance; expressivity; GxE; anticipation.

Readings

Pigeons, genetics in practice: Spread This reading from Learn.Genetics shows that genotype to phenotype is complicated--this particular example explores epistasis; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: epistasis; complex traits; genotype to phenotype.

Epistasis This reading from Learn.Genetics compliments the "Spread" example about pigeons and goes into more detail about epistasis; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: epistasis; complex traits; genotype to phenotype.

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Gene Expression and Regulation - Differential Gene Expression

Animations & Simulations

Gene Control Explore variability in gene expression due to histone modifications in this interactive module from Learn.Genetics; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: gene expression; upregulation; downregulation; GFP; epistasis.

Control of Gene Expression This animation from DNA from the Beginning demonstrates the discovery of the Lac operon and its contribution to our understanding of gene expression; most suitable majors. Keywords: gene expression; negative and positive control; inducer; operon.

Regulating Genes This interactive animation from NOVA Labs allows the user to explore mutations in various regions of enhancer DNA, changing the regulation of the expression of the coding region of several genes; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: gene expression; mutation; regulation; enhancers.

Video

RNA Splicing This short video from the DNA Learning Center shows the splicing process removing introns from pre-mRNA; suitable for majors. Keywords: mRNA; RNA structure: spliceosome; intron; exon.

Gene Regulation This video from Bozeman Science describes differential gene expression; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: gene expression; upregulation; downregulation.

Problem Sets

Why are some genes expressed but not others? This teaching guide from Teach.Genetics provides several exercises for students to consider differential gene expression; suitable for non-majors. Keywords: gene expression; epigenetics.

Eukaryotic Gene Expression Problem Set This multiple choice problem set from The Biology Project provides tutorials for incorrect answers and brief reinforcing explanations for correct answers; suitable for non-majors or majors. Keywords: gene expression; regulation.

Digital Presentations (PPT)

Readings

Gene Expression This reading from Nature's Scitable describes the concept of gene expression and differential expression in response to environment; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: gene expression; GxE; upregulation; downregulation.

Gene Expression is Analyzed by Tracking RNA This reading from Nature's Scitable details SAGE, also mentioning Western Blots and rt-PCR; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: gene expression; analysis; benchwork.

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Gene Expression and Regulation - Epigenetics

Animations & Simulations

Gene Control Explore variability in gene expression due to histone modifications in this interactive module from Learn.Genetics; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: gene expression; upregulation; downregulation; GFP; epistasis.

Lick Your Rats This interactive animation from Learn.Genetics engages users in rat behavior and demonstrates the epigenetic consequences on stress hormone expression; most suitable for non-majors. Keywords: epigenetics; behavior genetics; differential gene expression.

A Tale of Two Mice This audio slide show from NOVA shows the role the epigenome can have on phenotype; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: epigenetics; nature vs. nurture; GxE; epigenome; gene expression; gene regulation.

Video

The Epigenetics of Identical Twins This video from Learn.Genetics demonstrates how individuals with the same genotype can have different phenotypes thanks to the environment and epigenetics; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: GxE; epigenetics; twin studies.

The Epigenome at a GlanceThis video from Learn.Genetics provides an overview of epigenetics and its inheritance pattern; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: epigenetics; gene expression; inheritance pattern.

Epigenetics This video from Bozeman Science describes DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and microRNA regulation; suitable for non-majors and majors.  Keywords: epigenetics; DNA methylation; histone acetylation; microRNA; gene regulation.

Problem Sets

DNA Structure, Histones, and Epigenetics This problem set from the Sacramento State PASS PALs intervention program provides open-ended questions about epigenetics and histone modifications; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: epigenetics; histone modification; gene expression.

Digital Presentations (PPT)

Epigenetics This slide set from Doug Brutlag at Stanford University provides an advanced overview of epigenetics along with some examples; suitable for majors. Keywords: epigenetics; GxE; genotype to phenotype.

Readings

Epigenetics This spotlight article from Nature's Scitable describes several epigenetic phenomena; most suitable for majors. Keywords: epigenetics; longevity; GxE; gene regulation.

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Gene Expression and Regulation - Development and Differentiation

Animations & Simulations

Different genes are active in different kinds of cells This animation from DNA From the Beginning demonstrates key experiments conducted to examine differential gene expression during various stages of frog development across different tissues, as well as detailing the engineering of microarrays; most suitable for majors. Keywords: microarrays; cDNA; differentiation; development; differential gene expression.

Fruit fly gene expression, development This animation from DNA From the Beginning details the development of a fruit fly from egg to adult, describing polarity, homeobox genes, expression gradiants, and more; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: Drosophila; homeobox genes; development; polarity; expression gradients; gap genes.

Differentiation and the Fate of Cells This animation from HHMI Biointeractive demonstrates how cells become progressively more specialized as an organism continues to develop; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: blastula; human development; embryo; cell fate; differentiation; specialization; development.

Genetics of Development Several animations available from Anneberg Learner's "Rediscovering Biology" highlights some key developmental genetics signaling pathways; suitable for majors. Keywords: homeobox genes; Hox genes; hedgehog; development; signaling.

Video

An Introduction to Developmental Genetics This excellent introductory video from Jove goes over some major findings, key questions, and popular methods in developmental genetics--PLEASE NOTE that it requires an institutional subscription; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: development; evo-devo; homebox genes; signaling pathways.

Online Developmental Biology: Introduction to Drosophila This excellent introductory video from Jove goes over some major findings, key questions, and popular methods in developmental genetics--PLEASE NOTE that it requires an institutional subscription; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: development; evo-devo; homebox genes; signaling pathways.

Problem Sets

Explore Signal Transduction This problem set from DNA From the Beginning is an interactive series of questions with animations allowing the user to explore signal transduction, a critical component of all cellular processes including development; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: cell biology; signal transduction; virtual experimentation; cell signaling.

Digital Presentations (PPT)

Readings

The Complexity of Gene Expression, Protein Interaction, and Cell Differentiation This article from Nature's Scitable shows why a complex organism does not need a larger genome than its simpler counterparts; suitable for majors. Keywords: differentiation; gene regulation; complex traits.

Reversing Cell Differentiation This brief article from Learn.Genetics describes inducible pluripotent cells; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: iPS; cell differentiation; stem cells; gene regulation.

Homeotic Genes and Body Pattern This article from Learn.Genetics describes some mutations in fruit flies that led to the discovery of Hox genes and body pattern development; most suitable for non-majors. Keywords: Drosophila; mutation; model organism; devlopment; gene regulation; expression pattern.

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Genetic Variation - Mutation

Animations & Simulations

Mutation and Haplotypes This animation from Learn.Genetics demonstrates how mutations can be used to investigate population structure and relatedness, thanks to linkage; suitable for non-majors. Keywords: haplotypes; population structure; mutation; variation; molecular geneology.

Damage to DNA leads to mutationThis animation from HHMI BioInteractive describes reactive molecules and their mutagenic impact; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: free radicals; mutation; DNA repair; mutation accumulation.

Mismatch Repair This animation from HHMI BioInteractive shows how DNA is repaired after mistakes in replication--when this is not successful, mutations arise; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: DNA repair; mismatch; replication error; mutation.

DNA Mutations This animation from DNA From the Beginning, featuring Hermann Muller and Seymour Benzer, details several important experiments including the discovery of X-ray mutagenesis, inheritance of mutations, and a description of various types of DNA mutations; most suitable for majors. Keywords: point mutation; insertion; deletion; frameshift; X-ray mutagenesis.

Video

Mutations This video from Bozeman Science discusses types of mutations using easily relateable analogies; most suitable for non-majors. Keywords: mutations; frameshift; point mutation; deletion; insertion; inversion; translocation.

Problem Sets

DNA Mutation and Simple Inheritance Take Home Quiz This problem set from the Life Sciences Teaching Resource Community contains a simple set of questions about mutations and inheritance; most suitable for non-majors. Keywords: mutation; variation; inheritance.

Just One Nucleotide! Exploring the Effects of Random Single Nucleotide Mutations This problem set from the Life Sciences Teaching Resource Community asks students to transcribe and translate a gene, exploring the effects of mutations; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: Central Dogma; transcription; translation; point mutation; substitution; missense; nonsense; insertion; deletion.

Molecular Evolution of Gene Birth and Death This problem set from HHMI BioInteractive uses a handout and slideshow with links to videos to walk students through examples of DNA mutations, chromosomal abnormalities, and their phenotypic effects, as well as how examining these genomic changes can help us understand evolutionary history; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: mutations; DNA; chromosomes; real-world examples; molecular evolution.

Digital Presentations (PPT)

Gene Mutations This set of slides from Paul Billiet (ODWS) provides an overview of DNA mutations; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: mutations; nondisjunction; insertion; deletion; point mutation; silence; nonsense; missense; mutagen.

Readings

What is Mutation? This article from Learn.Genetics provides an overview of mutations, from induction to outcome; most suitable for non-majors. Keywords: mutation; variation; DNA repair; mutagen.

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Genetic Variation - Transposable Elements

Animations & Simulations

How Alu Jumps This animation from the DNA Learning Center describes how Alu "jumps" (note: the video is slightly dated); suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: transposable elements; jumping genes; Alu.

McClintock: Jumping genes, transposons This animation from DNA From the Beginning details Barbara McClintock's classic work with corn and her discovery of transposons; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: transposable elements; jumping genes; transposons; classical genetics; plant genetics; crossing over.

Video

Introduction to Transposable Elements This video from iBiology, featuring GSA member Sue Wessler, provides an overview of the history and mechanics of transposable elements--educators may also register for the iBiology site for teaching resources and short clips to use in their classroom; suitable for majors. Keywords: transposable elements; jumping genes; McClintock; classical genetics.

Mobile DNA This video from Useful Genetics describes the basics of mobile DNA; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: transposable elements; mobile DNA; "junk"; jumping genes.

Retrotransposons, pseudogenes, and "junk" DNA This video from Useful Genetics provides more details about retrotransposons, the pseudogenes they produce, and investigates whether large swaths of the genome is made up of "junk"; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: transposable elements; "junk"; pseudogenes; retrotransposons; jumping genes.

Problem Sets

Exploring organisms with transposable elements This interactive problem set from DNA From the Beginning explores a variety of species with transposable elements and demonstrates how transposons can be used to locate genes; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: transposons; genetic analysis; evolution.

Digital Presentations (PPT)

Readings

A Brief History of the Status of Transposable Elements This article from GSA's journal Genetics provides an historical overview of our understanding of transposable elements, from their discovery to our current knowledge; suitable for majors. Keywords: transposable elements; "junk"; jumping genes; evolution.

Barbara McClintock and the Discovery of "Jumping Genes" This article from Nature's Scitable describes the importance of "jumping genes" and details their initial discovery; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: transposable elements; "junk"; jumping genes; McClintock.

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Genetic Variation - Sources of Variation

Animations & Simulations

Sources of variation This animation from Learn.Genetics describes mutations as the major source of all variation, also describing recombination and sexual vs. asexual reproduction; most suitable for non-majors. Keywords: sources of variation; mutation; recombination; sexual reproduction.

Genetic Variation: Old genes, new tricks This interactive animation from Learn.Genetics uses real examples to demonstrate how modifications to gene switches can cause differences in the timing, location, or amount of protein production without changing the protein structure itself, thus resulting in a new variant without a protein-coding mutation; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: gene switches; gene regulation; genetic variation; gene expression; protein expression.

Genetic Variation This animation from Understanding Evolution describes several sources of genetic variation in detail, including mutation, recombination, and sexual reproduction; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: genetic variation; mutation; recombination; sexual reproduction; independent assortment.

Video

Mechanisms that Increase Genetic Variation This video from Bozeman Science describes mechanisms of increasing or maintaining variation in bacteria and eukaryotes, including horizontal transfer (bacteria), crossing over, independent assortment, and random fertilization; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors, Keywords: prokaryotes; eukaryotes; horizontal transfer; random fertilization; independent assortment; recombination; genetic variation.

Problem Sets

Sources of Variation This set of slides from D G Mackean also contains interactive multiple-choice questions; suitable for non-majors. Keywords: chromosomal variation; genetic variation; mutation; independent assortment; recombination.

Digital Presentations (PPT)

Sources of Variation This set of slides from D G Mackean describes chromosomal variants, mutation, independent assortment, and more while describing sources of genetic variation; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: chromosomal variation; genetic variation; mutation; independent assortment; recombination.

Readings

Sources of Genetic Variation This post from NCHPEG's Genetics and Social Science describes mutation, variation in gene regulation, and more; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: mutation; genetic variation; recombination; evolution.

Copy Number Variation This article from Nature's Scitable describes variation in the copy number of certain genes (CNVs); suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: copy number variation; genetic variation; evolution.

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Evolution and Population Genetics - Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE)

Animations & Simulations

Violations of HWE and Population Genetics This animation from OSU demonstrates different population genetics scenarios, including HWE and various ways equilibrium can be violated, and demonstrates the changes in the population over time as a result; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: HWE; population genetics; migration; mutation; genetic drift; non-random mating; natural selection; genotype frequency.

AlleleA1 This game from Jon C. Herron simulates evolution at a single locus, allowing players to control for violations of HWE (or to have no violations at all) and examining the resulting allele frequencies; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: HWE; population genetics; evolution; selection; mutation; migration; genetic drift; inbreeding; allele frequency.

PopCycle This game from Jon C. Herron lets players explore population genetics, controlling HWE and its various violations and examining the resulting genotype and phenotype frequencies; most suitable for majors. Keywords: HWE; population genetics; evolution; selection; mutation; migration; genetic drift; inbreeding; fitness; genotype frequency.

Video

Population Genetics: When Darwin Met Mendel This video from PBS LearningMedia's "Crash Course" describes what happens when you combine the principles of Mendel and Darwin--population genetics and Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: HWE; population genetics; independent assortment; random mating.

Teaching Evolution Case Studies: Marilyn Havlik This video from PBS LearningMedia provides an overview of how to introduce students to evolution by exploring population genetics, genetic frequencies, and HWE; suitable for instructors. Keywords: HWE; population genetics; genotype frequency; how-to.

Hardy-Weinberg Principle: Watch your Ps and Qs This video from the Penguin Professor describes HWE and how to use the Hardy-Weinberg equation to calculate expected allele and genotype frequencies in a population, comparing those to the observed frequencies; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: HWE; Punnett; Hardy-Weinberg equation; allele frequency; genotype frequency; expected vs. observed; population genetics.

Hardy-Weinberg Equation This video from Bozeman Science walks viewers through the Hardy-Weinberg equation--how was it derived, what does it mean, what frequencies is it looking at? Most suitable for non-majors. Keywords: phenotype; genotype; HWE; Hardy-Weinberg equation; frequencies.

Solving Hardy-Weinberg Problems This video from Bozeman Science begins with the gene pool and walks viewers through solving typical HWE problems in population genetics; most suitable for non-majors. Keywords: Hardy-Weinberg equation; HWE; problem-solving; genotype frequency; allele frequency.

Problem Sets

Population Genetics, Selection, and Evolution The first part of this problem set from HHMI BioInteractive uses beads to demonstrate HWE, allele, genotype, and phenotype frequencies; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: HWE; population genetics; allele frequency; genotype frequency; malaria; evolution; selection.

Digital Presentations (PPT)

Hardy-Weinberg This set of slides from Biology Junction, originally designed for AP Biology students, provides an introduction to HWE, how to solve population genetics problems, and asks students why real results may not match the expected genotype frequencies; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: HWE; population genetics; Hardy-Weinberg equation; calculations.

Readings

The Genetic Variation in a Population is Caused By Multiple Factors This article from Nature's Scitable details various factors that contribute to the violation of HWE and the contribution to genetic variation in a population; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: population genetics; nonrandom mating; inbreeding; genetic drift; fixation; bottleneck; distributation; migration; natural selection; evolution.

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Evolution and Population Genetics - Natural, Artifical, & Sexual Selection

Animations & Simulations

Stickleback evolution This animation from Learn.Genetics provides a simplified overview of evolution via natural selection in a population of sticklebacks observable in the past several decades; most suitable for non-majors. Keywords: evolution; natural selection; fitness.

Recipe for Evolution: Variation, Selection, and Time This animation from Learn.Genetics provides a simplified description of evolution via natural selection--please note that evolutionary changes due to drift and other random forces are not discussed; most suitable for non-majors. Keywords: evolution; natural selection; variation; generations; common ancestors; speciation.

Survival of the Sexiest These hilarious animations from National Geographic provide an excellent overview of sexual selection; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: sexual selection; secondary sexual characteristics; preference; population genetics.

Artificial vs. Natural Selection This animation from Learn.Genetics demonstrates artificial selection, comparing it to natural selection; most suitable for non-majors. Keywords: evolution; artificial selection; natural selection; population genetics; genetic variation.

Mouse Fur Color This simulation from Evo-Ed explores the effect of mutation, selective pressure, migration, and more on coat color of the beach mouse; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: mutation; phenotype frequency; molecular genetics; population genetics; migration; evolution; selection.

Pea Taste This simulation from Evo-Ed explores the effect of mutation, selective pressure, migration, and more on coat color of the beach mouse; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: phenotype frequency; allele frequency; population genetics; artificial selection; evolution.

EvoDots The "Darwin's Theory" option of this game from Jon C. Herron lets the user explore the mechanism of evolution, varying whether or not the trait is heritable or variable, or if survival is random or selective; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: evolution; heritability; variability; selection; population genetics.

Video

Speciation This video from PBS LearningMedia's "Crash Course" provides an overview of speciation in light of natural selection and evolution; most suitable for non-majors. Keywords: evolution; natural selection; artificial selection; speciation; reproductive isolation; reproduction; fertility; hybrids; heritability.

Evolution This video from PBS LearningMedia's "Crash Course" provides an overview of speciation in light of natural selection and evolution; most suitable for non-majors. Keywords: evolution; natural selection; artificial selection; speciation; reproductive isolation; reproduction; fertility; hybrids; heritability.

Teaching Evolution Case Studies: Bonnie Chen This video from PBS LearningMedia provides an overview of how to introduce students to evolution by natural selection, mutation, and beak size/shape diversity in Darwin's finches; suitable for instructors. Keywords: evolution; natural selection; population genetics; genotype frequency; how-to.

Problem Sets

Population Genetics, Selection, and Evolution The second part of this problem set from HHMI BioInteractive allows students to explore changes to HWE when selective forces are involved; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: HWE; population genetics; allele frequency; genotype frequency; malaria; evolution; selection.

Lactase Persistence: Evidence for Selection This exercise from HHMI BioInteractive uses short videos, animations, and guided critical thinking questions to help students explore the idea of lactose tolerance as a modern-day remnent of natural selection; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: evolution; natural selection; adaptation; variation; trait.

Molecular Evolution of Gene Birth and Death This problem set from HHMI BioInteractive uses a handout and slideshow with links to videos to walk students through examples of DNA mutations, chromosomal abnormalities, and their phenotypic effects, as well as how examining these genomic changes can help us understand evolutionary history; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: mutations; DNA; chromosomes; real-world examples; molecular evolution.

Digital Presentations (PPT)

Natural Selection This slide set from Menlo School provides an overview of natural selection and various selective pressures; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: natural selection; selective pressure; directional selection; stabilizing selection; disruptive selection; chance; sexual selection.

Mouse Fur Color This slide set from Evo-Ed explores the effect of mutation, selective pressure, migration, and more on coat color of the beach mouse; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: mutation; phenotype frequency; molecular genetics; population genetics; migration; evolution; selection.

Pea Taste This slide set from Evo-Ed explores the effect of mutation, selective pressure, migration, and more on coat color of the beach mouse; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: phenotype frequency; allele frequency; population genetics; artificial selection; evolution.

Readings

The Genetic Variation in a Population is Caused By Multiple Factors This article from Nature's Scitable details various factors that contribute to the violation of HWE and the contribution to genetic variation in a population; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: population genetics; nonrandom mating; inbreeding; genetic drift; fixation; bottleneck; distributation; migration; natural selection; evolution.

Natural Selection, Genetic Drift, and Gene Flow Do Not Act in Isolation in Natural Populations This article from Nature's Scitable discusses how the mechanisms of evolution work in tandem; most suitable for majors. Keywords: evolution; natural selection; genetic drift; migration; population genetics.

Sexual Selection This article from Nature's Scitable describes sexual selection and advantages to individuals in the form of increased reproductive success; most suitable for majors. Keywords: evolution; population genetics; sexual selection; secondary sexual characteristics.

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Evolution and Population Genetics - Other Violations of HWE

Animations & Simulations

Mechanisms of Evolution This video from McGraw-Hill shows the various mechanisms that result in evolution; suitable for non-majors or introductory majors. Keywords: evolution; gene flow; genetic drift; founder effect; bottleneck; selection; inbreeding; mutation; population genetics.

PopCycle This game from Jon C. Herron lets players explore population genetics, controlling HWE and its various violations and examining the resulting genotype and phenotype frequencies; most suitable for majors. Keywords: HWE; population genetics; evolution; selection; mutation; migration; genetic drift; inbreeding; fitness; genotype frequency.

EvoDots The "Mutation's Role" option of this game from Jon C. Herron lets the user explore the role of selection and mutation in evolution; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: evolution; heritability; variability; selection; population genetics.

Mouse Fur Color This simulation from Evo-Ed explores the effect of mutation, selective pressure, migration, and more on coat color of the beach mouse; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: mutation; phenotype frequency; molecular genetics; population genetics; migration; evolution; selection.

Video

Genetic Drift This video from Bozeman Science describes random evolutionary change via genetic drift, also touching on population bottlenecks and allele fixation; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: evolution; random; genetic drift; fixation; bottleneck; allele frequencies; population genetics; population size.

Founder Effect, Bottlenecking, and Genetic Drift This video from UW Madison demonstrates genetic drift, bottlenecking, inbreeding, and the founder effect (using Legos!); suitable for non-majors. Keywords: evolution; inbreeding; migration; founder effect; bottleneck; genetic drift; population genetics.

Problem Sets

Digital Presentations (PPT)

Mouse Fur Color This simulation from Evo-Ed explores the effect of mutation, selective pressure, migration, and more on coat color of the beach mouse; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: mutation; phenotype frequency; molecular genetics; population genetics; migration; evolution; selection.

Population Genetics This set of slides from Biology Junction, originally designed for AP Biology students, provides an introduction to the mechanisms for evolution and changes in population genetics; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: evolution; gene flow; genetic drift; founder effect; bottleneck; selection; mutation; population genetics; variability; heritability.

Readings

The Genetic Variation in a Population is Caused By Multiple Factors This article from Nature's Scitable details various factors that contribute to the violation of HWE and the contribution to genetic variation in a population; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: population genetics; nonrandom mating; inbreeding; genetic drift; fixation; bottleneck; distributation; migration; natural selection; evolution.

Natural Selection, Genetic Drift, and Gene Flow Do Not Act in Isolation in Natural Populations This article from Nature's Scitable discusses how the mechanisms of evolution work in tandem; most suitable for majors. Keywords: evolution; natural selection; genetic drift; migration; population genetics..

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Evolution and Population Genetics - Inference of Evolutionary Relatedness

Animations & Simulations

All Living Things Are Related This animation from Learn.Genetics discusses life's common ancestor, phylogenetic trees, and tracing evolutionary history; most suitable for non-majors. Keywords: evolution; phylogeny; relatedness; trees.

Comparative Anatomy of the Domestic Chicken This interactive "click & learn" activity from HHMI BioInteractive demonstrates how morphology can be used to infer evolutionary relatedness; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: evolution; phylogeny; relatedness; trees.

Creating Phylogenetic Trees from DNA Sequences This slide set from HHMI BioInteractive has animations and explanatory videos embedded throughout, describing DNA sequence differences and how they are used to infer evolutionary relatedness; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: evolution; molecular evolution; phylogeny; evolutionary relatedness.

Video

Comparing DNA Sequences This video from Bozeman Science shows viewers how to use DNA sequencing to infer evolutionary relatedness between organisms; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: cladogram; phylogeny; phylogenetics; molecular evolution.

Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree This video and accompanying teacher guide video from Jonathan Losos and HHMI BioInteractive highlights evolution, speciation, adaptive radiation, and convergent evolution all in one region; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: evolution; speciation; adaptive radiation; phylogenetics; convergence.

Problem Sets

Using Bioinformatics to Study Homologs in Model Organisms This problem set from DNA From the Beginning walks users through the use of NCBI and amino acid sequence comparisons to infer the function of a newly discovered protein; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: homologs; bioinformatics; sequence conservation; protein function; evolutionary relatedness.

Phylogenetics Problem Set This problem set (author unknown) provides an overview of construction fo phylogenetic trees without sequence data, including the use of parsimony to select the most likely tree; most suitable for majors. Keywords: evolutionary relatedness; phylogeny; cladogram; parsimony; common ancestor; trees.

Digital Presentations (PPT)

E. coli Citrate Use This set of slides from Evo-Ed presents a classic experiment in long-term evolution of E. coli to grow on citrate; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: phylogenetics; evolution; artificial selection; classic experiments.

Taxonomy and Phylogeny: Classification of OrganismsThis set of slides from Jon Scales at Midwestern State University provides an overview of taxonomy and phylogeny; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: evolutionary relatedness; phylogeny; classification; common ancestor; cladogram.

Creating Phylogenetic Trees from DNA Sequences This slide set from HHMI BioInteractive has animations and explanatory videos embedded throughout, describing DNA sequence differences and how they are used to infer evolutionary relatedness; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: evolution; molecular evolution; phylogeny; evolutionary relatedness.

Readings

Reading a Phylogenetic Tree: The Meaning of Monophyletic Groups This article from Nature's Scitable describes how to read and interpret a phylogenetic tree, also providing details about how the trees are derived; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: evolution; phylogeny; relatedness; trees.

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Genetics of Model Organisms (MOs) - Intro to MOs

Animations & Simulations

Model Organisms This animation from the DNA Learning Center provides an overview of several genetic model systems, including: E. coliS. cerivisiae, Mouse, Arabidopsis, C. elegans, D. melanogaster, and zebrafish; most suitable for non-majors. Keywords: model organisms; E. coli; S. cerivisiae; Mouse; Arabidopsis; C. elegans; D. melanogaster; zebrafish.

Video

Drosophila: Small fly, BIG impact - Part 1 (Why the fly?) This video from the Manchester Fly Facility describes the life history of the fruit fly, as well as the history of its use in the lab; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: model organisms; C. elegans; worm; history; genetics; evolution; MO to human biology.

Model Organisms - Yeast - Professor Rhona Borts This video from the University of Leicester provides an excellent overview of why basic research is a key element of biomedical research; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: model organisms; yeast; genetics; MO to human biology.

Zebrafish: The New Lab Rat This video from DNews provides an overview of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, and its history of use as a model genetic system. Keywords: model organisms; zebrafish; MO to human biology; history.

Online Developmental Biology: Introduction to C. elegans This video from Online Developmental Biology provides an in-depth overview of C. elegans and their use as a model system; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: model organisms; C. elegans; developmental genetics.

An Introduction to the Laboratory Mouse: Mus musculus This free-access video from JoVE describes the use of the house mouse as a model system, details its life history, and provides an overview of some discoveries made using mice; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: model organisms; mouse; life history; MOs to human biology; basic research.

Problem Sets

Digital Presentations (PPT)

E. coli Citrate Use This set of slides from Evo-Ed presents a classic experiment in long-term evolution of E. coli to grow on citrate; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: phylogenetics; evolution; artificial selection; classic experiments.

Model Organisms Used in Molecular Biology This set of slides from Ruey-Hua Lee describes what makes a good model organism, provides a comprehensive overview of many model systems, and in-depth descriptions of life history traits and fields of study for species like E. coli, C. elegans, D. melanogaster, Arabidopsis, Zebrafish, and more; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: model organisms; bacteria; plants; invertebrates; eukaryotes; vertebrates; basic research.

Readings

Genetics on the Fly: A Primer on the Drosophila Model System This Model Organism Primer from the GSA Journal GENETICS (subscription required) provides an in-depth overview of  Drosophila life history, lab husbandry, genetic toolkit, and essential discoveries made with the fruit fly; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: model organisms; Drosophila; history; genetics; evolution; MO to human biology.

An Ancient Yeast for Young Geneticists: A Primer on the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Model System This Model Organism Primer from the GSA Journal GENETICS (subscription required) provides an in-depth overview of S. pombe (fission yeast) life history, culture, genetic toolkit, bioinformatics, and discoveries made with the yeast thusfar; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: model organisms; S. pombe; yeast; history; genetics; evolution; MO to human biology.

A Transparent Window into Biology: A Primer on Caenorhabditis elegans This Model Organism Primer from the GSA Journal GENETICS provides an in-depth overview of C. elegans life history, culture, genetic toolkit, use in developmental genetics, and discoveries made with the worm thusfar; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: model organisms; C. elegans; worm; history; genetics; evolution; developmental genetics; neurobiology; MO to human biology.

Budding Yeast for Budding Geneticists: A Primer on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Model System This Model Organism Primer from the GSA Journal GENETICS provides an in-depth overview of S. cerevisiae (budding yeast) life history, genetic toolkit, use in systems genetics, and discoveries made with the yeast thusfar; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: model organisms; S. cerevisiae; yeast; history; genetics; evolution; MO to human biology.

Why fly? This brief summary of important arguments for using Drosophila as a model system is produced by The Manchester Fly Facility and is constantly being updated (also note that there is a highly resourceful "Organs" tab comparing Drosophila and human organs); suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: MOs to human biology; Drosophila; basic research; rationale.

Drosophila as a Model Organism This article from ModENCODE in the Classroom describes the fruit fly as a model system; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: model organisms; Drosophila; history; genetics; evolution; MO to human biology.

C. elegans as a Model Organism This article from ModENCODE in the Classroom describes the nematode worm as a model system; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: model organisms; Drosophila; history; genetics; evolution; MO to human biology.

Introduction to Xenopus, the frog model This short article from Xenbase introduces readers to two species of Xenopus commonly used in developmental genetics research; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: model organisms; developmental genetics; Xenopus; basic research.

Model Organisms This collection of readings and information at Encyclopedia of Life highlights many different genetic, genomic, and experimental model systems; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: model organisms; life history; basic research.

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Genetics of Model Organisms (MOs) - MOs to Human Biology

Animations & Simulations

Video

Drosophila: Small fly, BIG impact - Part 2 (Making research fly) This video from the Manchester Fly Facility describes how research on fruit flies can inform us about human biology and diseases; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: MOs to human biology; disease; basic research; drosophila.

Model Organisms in Biomedical Research This video from the University of Leicester provides an excellent overview of why basic research is a key element of biomedical research; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: yeast; Drosophila; MOs to human biology; basic research; disease; Huntington.

4 Weird Lab Animals This video from SciShow may have an odd name (and Hank may stumble over the Latin names), but it provides a wonderful overview of why MOs are useful and details about Drosophila, C. elegans, sea urchins, and ferrets; most suitable for non-majors. Keywords: MOs to human biology; disease; basic research; drosophila; C. elegans; sea urchin; ferret.

Problem Sets

A Case Study of Memory Loss in Mice This case study from the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science explores the scientific process involved in implementing an animal model (the mouse) in the study of Alzheimer’s disease; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: MOs to human biology; disease; Alzheimer's; basic research; mouse.

Digital Presentations (PPT)

Readings

Using Model Organisms to Study Health and Disease This factsheet from the National Institute of General Medical Science (NIGMS) discusses why model organisms and basic research are so vital for our understanding of all of biology, including human biology and disease; most suitable for non-majors. Keywords: MOs to human biology; disease; basic research.

Why fly? This brief summary of important arguments for using Drosophila as a model system is produced by The Manchester Fly Facility and is constantly being updated (also note that there is a highly resourceful "Organs" tab comparing Drosophila and human organs); suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: MOs to human biology; Drosophila; basic research; rationale.

C. elegans: Model Organism in the Discovery of PKD This article from Nature's Scitable describes how C. elegans research helped our understanding of polycystic kidney disease; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: MOs to human biology; disease; basic research; C. elegans.

L. H. Hartwell's Yeast: A Model Organism for Studying Somatic Mutations and Cancer This article from Nature's Scitable describes how research on mitosis using yeast is contributing to our understanding of cell division and cancer; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: MOs to human biology; disease; basic research; S. cerevisiae.

Aging This vingette from ModENCODE for the Classroom describes how C. elegans are used to research aging; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: MOs to human biology; aging; basic research; C. elegans.

Alcoholism This vingette from ModENCODE for the Classroom describes how Drosophila are used to study alcoholism; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: MOs to human biology; disease; alcoholism; basic research; Drosophila.

Fragile X Syndrome This vingette from ModENCODE for the Classroom describes how Drosophila are used to study Fragile X Syndrome and autism; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: MOs to human biology; disease; Fragile X; autism; basic research; Drosophila.

Neurodegeneration: Drosophila as a Model for Human Disorders This vingette from ModENCODE for the Classroom describes how Drosophila are used to study Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: MOs to human biology; disease; Alzheimer's Disease; Parkinson's Disease; Huntington's Disease; basic research; Drosophila.

The Use of Animal Models in Studying Genetic Disease: Transgenesis and Induced Mutation This article from Nature's Scitable describes various genetic engineering methods used to induce human disease phenotypes in model systems; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: genetic toolkit; genetic modification; mutation screens; knock-in; knock-out; recombination; methods.

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Methods and Tools in Genetics - Basic Benchwork

Animations & Simulations

Cloning 101 This animation from the DNA Learning Center provides a very general overview of what geneticists mean by cloning; most suitable for non-majors. Keywords: cloning; stem cells; tools.

DNA Barcoding This animation from the DNA Learning Center introduces the concept of a DNA barcode, how it works, and what type of research questions DNA barcoding can answer; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: DNA isolation; DNA barcoding; PCR; gel electrophoresis; sequencing; bioinformatics.

Gel Electrophoresis This interactive animation from the DNA Learning Center allows the user to explore the technique behind gel elecrophoresis and better understand how and why it works; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: gel electrophoresis; methods; genetics.

Polymerase Chain Reaction This interactive animation from the DNA Learning Center allows the user to explore the technique behind polymerase chain reaction and better understand how and why it works; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: PCR: methods; genetics.

Virtual Lab: DNA Extraction This interactive virtual lab from Learn.Genetics allows the user to extract DNA from a cheek swab, animating many steps in the process; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: DNA extraction; lysis; purification; methods; genetics.

Virtual Lab: Gel Electrophoresis This interactive virtual lab from Learn.Genetics allows the user to measure and sort DNA fragments using gel electrophoresis, animating many steps in the process; most suitable for non-majors. Keywords: gel electrophoresis; methods; genetics.

Virtual Lab: PCR  This interactive virtual lab from Learn.Genetics allows the user to perform PCR, providing an animation of what happens in the thermocycler; most suitable for non-majors. Keywords: PCR: methods; genetics.

Video

Problem Sets

Gel Electrophoresis Band Migration Practice Problems This interactive problem set from Science Primer asks the user questions about band migration in gel elecrophoresis; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: gel electrophoresis; methods; genetics.

Digital Presentations (PPT)

Nucleic Acid Extraction Methods This set of slides from Austin Community College provides an overview of various methods of nucleic acid extraction; most suitable for majors. Keywords: DNA extraction; RNA isolation; quality control; methods; genetics; RNase.

PCR This set of slides from Michigan State University details PCR and primer design, as well as uses for PCR; most suitable for majors. Keywords: PCR: methods; genetics.

Gel Electrophoresis This set of slides from the University of Rochester provides an excellent and comprehensive overview of exactly how to run a gel electrophoresis, and why it works; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: gel electrophoresis; methods; genetics.

Readings

Scientists Can Make Copies of a Gene through PCR This article from Nature's Scitable provides a short overview of PCR; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: PCR: methods; genetics.

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Methods and Tools in Genetics - Sequencing

Animations & Simulations

Cycle Sequencing This interactive animation from the DNA Learning Center takes the user step by step through the process of the Sanger sequencing cycle; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: Sanger; cycle sequencing; DNA sequencing; methods.

Sanger Sequencing This 3D animation from the DNA Learning Center describes the first method of DNA sequencing developed by Sanger; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: Sanger; cycle sequencing; DNA sequencing; methods.

Video

Ultra-Deep Sequencing This video from HHMI BioInteractive describes ultra-deep DNA sequencing, one method of next-generation sequencing; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: next-generation sequencing; DNA sequencing; ultra-deep sequencing; methods; genetics.

Problem Sets

DNA Sequencing and the Human Genome This problem set from the University of Washington explores DNA sequencing, cloning, and several other genetics techniques; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: DNA sequencing; gel electrophoresis; cloning; methods; genetics.

Digital Presentations (PPT)

DNA Sequence Assembly This interactive set of slides from HHMI BioInteractive briefly describes Sanger sequencing before moving on to deep sequencing, then reveals the bioinformatics challenges from generating sequencing data and trying to assemble it; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: Sanger; next-generation sequencing; DNA sequencing; sequence assembly; whole-genome sequencing; bioinformatics; methods; genetics.

Next Generation Sequencing for Dummies This presentation (with accompanying images available for use in your presentations) created by Andy Vierstraete at Ghent University provides a timeline of the history of DNA sequencing as well as a description of various methods of "next-" and "next-next-" generation sequencing; most suitable for majors. Keywords: DNA sequencing; next-generation; 4th generation sequencing; methods; genetics.

Readings

DNA Sequencing Technologies This article from Nature's Scitable describes early sequencing, sanger sequencing, and 454 sequencing; most suitable for majors. Keywords: Sanger; next-generation sequencing; DNA sequencing; 454; methods; genetics.

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Methods and Tools in Genetics - Gene Expression Analysis

Animations & Simulations

DNA Microarrays This animation from the DNA Learning Center describes how cDNA microarrays are constructed and used to simultaneously examine gene expression differences across samples from various timepoints and locations; most suitable for majors. Keywords: cDNA microarray; gene expression analysis; methods; genetics.

Experiments & Techniques: Microarray This 3D animation from the DNA Learning Center describes the first method of DNA sequencing developed by Sanger; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: cDNA microarray; gene expression analysis; methods; genetics.

Quantitative Real-Time PCR This animation from OpenMichigan describes how quantitative real-time PCR is used to compare gene expression across samples; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: qRT-PCR; gene expression; clinical genetics; methods; genetics.

Virtual Lab: DNA microarray This virtual lab from Learn.Genetics lets the user prepare and run a microarray; most suitable for non-majors. Keywords: gene expression; microarrays; methods; genetics.

Video

Problem Sets

Gene expression during development: Experimental design problem This experimental design problem set from Pedagogy in Action asks students to design two experiments to answer two questions related to differential gene expression, deciding on which method of analysis would be best suited to answer the question; most suitable for majors. Keywords: gene expression; methods; genetics.

Digital Presentations (PPT)

Visualizing Gene-Expression Patterns This set of slides (with some embedded media) from HHMI BioInteractive asks students to think about various methods of assessing gene expression differences--what factors need to be considered? What should be compared, mRNA or protein? Various methods for measuing gene expression are then explored; most suitable for majors. Keywords: gene expression; microarrays; protein antibodies; methods; genetics.

Readings

Gene Expression is Analyzed by Tracking RNA This reading from Nature's Scitable details SAGE, also mentioning Western Blots and rt-PCR; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: gene expression; analysis; benchwork.

Scientists Can Study an Organism's Entire Genome with Microarray Analysis This article from Nature's Scitable describes microarray analysis in great detail, and includes an animation at the end; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: gene expression; microarrays; methods; genetics.

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Methods and Tools in Genetics - Genetic Modification

Animations & Simulations

DNA Restriction This animation from the DNA Learning Center demonstrates how researchers can use restriction enzymes to "cut and paste" one section of DNA into another; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: genetic toolkit; genetic modification; restriction enzymes; DNA substitution.

DNA Transformation This animation from the DNA Learning Center recounts the experimental methods used to successfully perform the first DNA transformation, or insertion of DNA from one organism into another; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: DNA transformation; restriction enzymes; genetic toolkit; genetic modification; methods.

DNA Transformation, continued This animation from the DNA Learning Center is a continuation of "DNA Transformation," and describes how transformation occurs in nature--this knowledge was used to harness the power of competent cells for genetics researchers; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: DNA transformation; restriction enzymes; genetic toolkit; genetic modification; methods.

Mechanism of Recombination This animation from the DNA Learning Center demonstrates how researchers use bacteria to manufacture copies of foreign DNA that have been inserted via restriction enzymes; most suitable for non-majors. Keywords: genetic toolkit; genetic modification; restriction enzymes; bacteria; methods.

RNA Interference (RNAi) This animation from Nature Videos introduces the principles of RNAi including siRNAs and microRNAs; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: gene silencing; RNAi; siRNA; microRNA; genetic manipulation; gene expression; genetic toolkit; methods.

Video

Biotechnology: Training & Careers This video from HHMI BioInteractive provides a brief glimpse into the world of biotechnology and genetic engineering; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: genetic engineering; biotechnology; genetics careers; R&D.

Genome Editing with CRISPR-Cas9 This video from McGovern Institute for Brain Research at MIT details the CRISPR method of genome editing, noting that it is based on a naturally-occurring phenomenon; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: genome editing; genetic engineering; genetic toolkit; CRISPR; cas9; methods.

What is CRISPR? This video from Bozeman Science provides an excellent description of how CRISPR functions, and how it works with Cas-9 to edit genomes; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: genome editing; genetic engineering; genetic toolkit; CRISPR; cas9; methods.

Problem Sets

Cow of the Future This case study from the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science asks students to consider the methods, ramifications, ethical implications, and societal usefulness of genetically engineering a microbe that reduces bovine methane emissions; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: genetic toolkit; genetic modification; DNA transformation; ethics; society; methods.

Digital Presentations (PPT)

Genetic Manipulation This set of slides from D G Mackean describe genetic engineering via DNA transformation, cloning, and stem cells; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: genetic toolkit; genetic modification; restriction enzymes; bacteria; cloning; stem cells; methods.

Readings

The Use of Animal Models in Studying Genetic Disease: Transgenesis and Induced Mutation This article from Nature's Scitable describes various genetic engineering methods used to induce human disease phenotypes in model systems; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: genetic toolkit; genetic modification; mutation screens; knock-in; knock-out; recombination; methods.

Forward and Reverse Mutagenesis in C. elegans This article in Wormbook describes a plethora of techniques used in both forward and reverse genetic screens; most suitable for majors. Keywords: RNAi; TILLING; mutagenesis; forward genetics; reverse genetics; CRISPR/cas9; TALENs; Zinc finger nucleases; genetic toolkit; methods.

An Introduction to Reverse Genetic Tools for Investigating Gene Function This article from the American Phytopathology Society describes forward and reverse genetic screens, then details several methods used in reverse genetic screening; most suitable for majors. Keywords: forward genetics; reverse genetics; genetic screen; functional analysis; methods; genetic toolkit.

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Methods and Tools in Genetics - Bioinformatics

Animations & Simulations

Animations for Teaching Bioinformatics This collection of animations from Bioinformatics in Motion covers many modules related to genetics, evolution, data analysis, and bioinformatics; suitable for non-majors and majors (some modules are more advanced than others). Keywords: bioinformatics; DNA sequencing; big data; methods; genetics; homology; evolution; alignment.

Video

Leading-Edge Bioinformatics This video from HHMI BioInteractive follows a graduate student and a postdoc as they discuss their work in bioinformatics, including several new techniques; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: bioinformatics; DNA sequencing; big data; methods; genetics.

Bioinformatics Defined This video from the DNA Learning Center is a short clip of Allen Moore describing bioinformatics and some of its common uses (note: works best in Internet Explorer); suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: bioinformatics; DNA sequencing; big data; methods; genetics.

Problem Sets

Using Bioinformatics to Study Homologs in Model Organisms This problem set from DNA From the Beginning walks users through the use of NCBI and amino acid sequence comparisons to infer the function of a newly discovered protein; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: homologs; bioinformatics; sequence conservation; protein function; evolutionary relatedness.

Digital Presentations (PPT)

How to Analyze DNA Microarray DataThis set of slides from HHMI BioInteractive shows a microarray experimental setup, the resulting data, and demonstrates how these data can be analyzed and compared to detect gene expression differences; most suitable for majors. Keywords: gene expression; microarray; analysis; clustering; methods.

DNA Sequence Assembly This interactive set of slides from HHMI BioInteractive briefly describes Sanger sequencing before moving on to deep sequencing, then reveals the bioinformatics challenges from generating sequencing data and trying to assemble it; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: Sanger; next-generation sequencing; DNA sequencing; sequence assembly; whole-genome sequencing; bioinformatics; methods; genetics.

Readings

Systems Biology of the Cell This article from Nature's Scitable shows how critical bioinformatics will be in the dawn of systems-level analysis of biology and genetics; most suitable for majors. Keywords: bioinformatics; systems biology; big data; methods; genetics.

Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) This article from Nature's Scitable explores how bioinformatics and algorithms help compare DNA sequence data and infer evolutionary relatedness; most suitable for majors. Keywords: bioinformatics; sequence alignment; algorithm; evolutionary relatedness; methods; genetics.

Genetics and Society This topic room at Nature's Scitable has over thirty articles about ethical, legal, and social considerations related to genetics (listed at the bottom at "Explore this Topic"); suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: ethics; genetics; GINA; social issues; OTC genetic testing; human research subjects; informed consent.

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Genetics & Society - Resources

Animations & Simulations

Video

Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of Genetic Knowledge This video from NHGRI provides a very brief overview of some of the issues surrounding genetics and society; most suitable for non-majors. Keywords: ethics; genetics; social issues; discrimination; human genome.

Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues in Genomics This pre-recorded presenation from Amy McGuire provides an overview of the history of the NHGRI ELSI program and what the program will do going forward; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: ethics; policy; education; ELSI; human genome; society.

Problem Sets

Cow of the Future This case study from the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science asks students to consider the methods, ramifications, ethical implications, and societal usefulness of genetically engineering a microbe that reduces bovine methane emissions; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: genetic toolkit; genetic modification; DNA transformation; ethics; society; methods.

A Right to Her Genes This case study from the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science presents a woman whose family has a history of breast cancer, asking students to consel her about her rights relating to genetic testing; suitable for majors, and can be modified to use with non-majors. Keywords: disease; ethics; genetic testing; society; genetics.

Make a Life to Save a Life This case study from the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science uses a real-world example of a couple who used pre-implantation genetic screening to select an embryo that was a genetic match for an older sibling with leukemia, and thus able to provide a source of bone marrow cells; suitable for non-majors and introductory majors. Keywords: ethics; genetics; societal issues.

Digital Presentations (PPT)

Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues in Genome Research The last part of this set of slides from NHGRI and the University of Utah, beginning with slide 72, asks viewers to consider some of the ethical and legal ramifications of genomic research; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: ethics; genetics; GINA; social issues.

Readings

The Stem Cell Debate: Is It Over? This article from Learn.Genetics asks: with the introduction of induced pluripotent cells, is the debate over ethical stem cell use over? Most suitable for non-majors. Keywords: ethics; society; stem cells; policy; genetics.

Policy, legal and ethical issues in genetic research The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHRGI) has amassed a collection of information about ethical, social, and legal issues related to genetic research; suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: ethics; genetics; GINA; social issues; OTC genetic testing; human research subjects; informed consent.

Genetics and Society This topic room at Nature's Scitable has over thirty articles about ethical, legal, and social considerations related to genetics (listed at the bottom at "Explore this Topic"); suitable for non-majors and majors. Keywords: ethics; genetics; GINA; social issues; OTC genetic testing; human research subjects; informed consent.

**These resources have been compiled as a service to the community, especially for the many members of GSA who teach genetics. As they have not been rigorously vetted by GSA or its Education Committee, their inclusion in the Resource Room is not meant to imply endorsement or approval by GSA. If your work is posted and you wish to have it removed, please contact education@genetics-gsa.org**